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Below are brief descriptions of data, analysis, and tools used to analyze health disparities, grouped into the following categories:
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Vulnerable or Disadvantaged Populations
- 2010 Population Finder
2010 Population Finder provides demographic profiles for states and places from the 2010 US Census.
- ADD Health
ADD Health - National Longitudinal (cohort) study of health in adolescents and young adults collected periodically since 1992.
- CensusScope: Population by Race
This website provides census population comparisons over time.
- CMS: New toolkit provides examples for implementing the National Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services (CLAS) Standards
New CMS toolkit enables organizations to implement the National CLAS Standards and improve health equity. The toolkit also provides practical tools and examples of CLAS, in addition to efforts to implement the National CLAS Standards that can be adapted for use by health care organizations.
- Compendium of Federal Datasets Addressing Health Disparities [PDF]
This Compendium of Federal Datasets Addressing Health Disparities (Compendium) incorporates datasets and resources from agencies within HHS that are relevant for health disparities, health equity, and minority health. The Compendium is an initiative of the Interdepartmental Health Equity Collaborative (IHEC) and the HHS Office of Minority Health to encourage intersectoral collaboration across federal agencies to better address health disparities.
Data2020 - Search for Healthy People Objectives data at the National and State levels and by Disparities
- Data Resource Center for Child and Adolescent Health
Data Resource Center for Child and Adolescent Health is a Project of the Child and Adolescent Health Measurement Initiative.
- The Devaluation of Assets in Black Neighborhoods
the case of residential property. Study explains the concept of residential property devaluation and includes an interactive map of 113 metropolitan areas with at least one majority black neighborhood.
- The Eviction Lab at Princeton University
The Eviction Lab at Princeton University has built the first nationwide database of evictions. Find out how many evictions happen in your community. Create custom maps, charts, and reports. Share facts with your neighbors and elected officials.
FACTANK - 7 facts about Americans with Disabilities
- Health Disparities in Appalachia
measures population health in Appalachia and documents disparities between the Region and the nation as a whole, disparities within the Appalachian Region, and identifies "Bright Spots," or communities that exhibit better-than-expected health outcomes given their resources. The full (404 page) report and select sections can be accessed here.
- Health Disparities PubMed Special Query Updated
In April 2019, the National Library of Medicine updated the topic-specific PubMed Special Query, Health Disparities, to include terms and resources on gender and sexual minorities. As of this update, the search retrieves over 230,000 citations.
- Health Disparities Widget of Healthy People 2020 Leading Health Indicators
Health Disparities Widget of Healthy People 2020 Leading Health Indicators
- How Many People are Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender?
Drawing on national and state population-based surveys, this report estimates the number of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender adults in the US
- My Tribal Area Data Tool
My Tribal Area Data Tool provides comprehensive maps, data profiles and easy access to select demographic and economic statistics for each of the nation's tribal areas.
- New Research Analyzes State-Level Impact of USDA Proposal to End SNAP Broad-Based Categorical Eligibility
New research from Mathematica analyzes the state-level impact of a proposed rule from USDA to end Broad-Based Categorical Eligibility for the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP or food stamps).
- Opportunity Atlas
The Opportunity Atlas is a graphic at the 70,000 census tract-level dataset of 20.5M children's outcomes as adults (born 1978-1983 linked to an adult via claimed as dependent on tax returns).
- Photo Identification Barriers Faced by Homeless Persons: The Impact of September 11
The survey revealed that the lack of photo identification has become a tremendous problem for people who are homeless in a post-September 11 climate. People without photo identification have difficulty accessing the critical services and benefits that help move people out of poverty.
- US Census Housing Vacancies And Home Ownership Data
US Census Housing Vacancies And Home Ownership Data are available for the U.S., regions, states, and for the 75 largest Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs).
- USDA Food Access Research Atlas
USDA Food Access Research Atlas presents a spatial overview of food access indicators for low-income and other Census tracts using different measures of supermarket accessibility.
- 500 Cities Project
CDC's 500 Cities Project is an interactive web application that helps users view and explore local-level health data within America's 500 largest cities on 27 chronic disease measures focusing on conditions, behaviors and risk factors that have substantial effect on the public's health.
AskCHIS is an online health query system that allows you to search for health statistics on California counties, regions, and the state. AskCHIS draws upon the responses of more than 50,000 Californians interviewed by The California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) - the largest state health survey in the United States.
- AskCHIS Neighborhood Edition
provides health estimates at the local level (zip codes and cities). AskCHIS NE computes estimates on top health indicators for zip code, city, county and legislative district.
- Census Data Tool
One of the primary purposes of the U.S. Census is to measure population distribution and change. The Census Data Tool includes General Information about the US Population and Segregation Measures.
- Child Opportunity Index
The Brandeis-based DiversityDataKids group supports the Child Opportunity Index, a comprehensive multifactor national mapping tool that helps to highlight disparities in conditions across neighborhoods affecting child health, educational achievement, and long-term outcomes.
- County Health Rankings
County Health Rankings, published by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and the University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute, provide a snapshot of how health is influenced by where we live, learn, work and play
- COVID-19 Health Equity Dashboard
This Interactive COVID-19 Health Equity Dashboard seeks to fill the gaps in county-level data about the virus and underlying social determinants of health. The Dashboard facilitates easy comparisons of counties with respect to COVID-19 outcomes and social determinants. This data platform can be used to facilitate a tailored public health response to COVID-19.
- Diversity and Disparities: Residential Segregation
The website contains non-Hispanic/Latino white, non-Hispanic/Latino black, Hispanic/Latino, Asian and Native American population data. You can use the data to learn about the racial/ethnic composition of a city or metropolitan region
Map USA provides maps and census data at the tract and county level from 1940 to 2010.
- The Persistence of Segregation in the Metropolis
This report contains information on the 2010 Census which offers new information on changes in residential segregation in metropolitan regions across the country as they continue to become more diverse.
- State Health Compare
State Health Compare is a user-friendly online tool for obtaining and comparing state-level estimates related to health and health care using a broad "culture of health" lens.
- US Health Map
With this interactive map, you can explore health trends in the United States at the county level for both sexes for: 29 cancers, 21 major causes of death, life expectancy, smoking, obesity, physical activity, alcohol use, hypertension, and diabetes.
- AHRQ Healthcare disparities and quality reports Data Query tool
AHRQ Healthcare disparities and quality reports Data Query tool provides access to all data tables.
- CDC Teen Vax View Interactive!
CDC Teen Vax View Interactive! allows users to view national, regional, state, and selected local area adolescent vaccination coverage estimates with interactive maps, trend lines, bar charts, and data table.
- Health Care Systems Research Network
The Health Care Systems Research Network (HCSRN) pools data from large health delivery systems across the US.
- Health Data Alliance
Health Data Alliance, the Pittsburgh Health Data Alliance is pooling medical records from three Pittsburgh institutions: Carnegie Mellon University, the University of Pittsburgh, and the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center.
- Health System Tracker
Health System Tracker is a collaboration between the Kaiser Family Foundation and the US Bureau of economic Analysis that provides data on health spending, quality of care, access and affordability, health and wellbeing.
- OECD Health Database
The OECD Health Database offers a comprehensive source of comparable statistics on health and health systems across OECD countries, with a tool to enable international comparisons of diverse health systems.
- Opportunities for Complex Care Programs to Address the Social Determinants of Health
This brief explores opportunities to better address patients' non-medical needs, including: (1) identifying patients' non-medical needs; (2) employing non-traditional workers; (3) partnering with community-based organizations and social service agencies; (4) testing new uses for technology to help address social needs; and (5) identifying sustainable funding to support non-medical services.
- Poverty: A Clinical Tool for Primary Care Providers
The Canadian Centre for Effective Practice developed a tool for clinicians. It focuses on poverty as a social determinant and connects to social support resources.
- Review of data sets useful for evaluating the national Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program
Review of data sets useful for evaluating the national Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program, by Dalzell LP1, Tangka FK, Powers DS, O'Hara BJ, Holmes W, Joseph K, Royalty J., Cancer Causes Control. 2015 May;26(5):699-709, provides data sources for identifying low-income, uninsured populations.
Risk Factors and Surveillance
- National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Measures Registry
National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Measures Registry is a searchable database of diet and physical activity measures to assess childhood diet, physical activity, and the environments in which these behaviors occur, designed to standardize use of common measures and research methods at the individual, community, and population levels.
- NCI Cancer Atlas
NCI Cancer Atlas is a tool that allows users to create maps of cancer statistics, demographics, and risk factors.
- NIOSH Worker Health Charts
WHC allows quick analysis of work-related safety and health data that may be difficult to find or are not charted elsewhere.
- Opportunity Atlas
The Opportunity Atlas allows users to interactively explore data on children's outcomes into adulthood for every Census tract in the United States. This can inform local efforts to build equitable, prosperous, and healthier communities.outcomes into adulthood for every Census tract in the US.
- Overweight and Obesity
CDC Overweight and Obesity mapping tool provides data, trends and prevalence maps by state and territory, and legislation pertaining to nutrition, physical activity and obesity.
- Tobacco-related disparities
Although cigarette smoking has declined significantly since 1964, disparities in tobacco use remain across groups defined by race, ethnicity, educational level, and socioeconomic status and across regions of the country.
- Tobacco Use Among Middle and High School Students - United States, 2011-2016
Ahmed Jamal; Andrea Gentzke; S. Sean Hu; Karen A. Cullen; Benjamin J. Apelberg; David M. Homa; Brian A. King, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report June 16, 2017.
- Violence Victimization, Substance Use, and Suicide Risk Among Sexual Minority High School Students - United States, 2015-2017
Michelle M. Johns, PhD; Richard Lowry, MD; Catherine N. Rasberry, PhD; Richard Dunville, MPH; Leah Robin, PhD; Sanjana Pampati, MPH; Deborah M. Stone, ScD; Laura M. Mercer Kollar, PhD, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report November 2, 2018.
- Web-based Injury Statistics query and Reporting system (WISQARS)
Web-based Injury Statistics query and Reporting system (WISQARS)
Diseases and Conditions
- CDC State Health Profiles
CDC Data Base provides statistical and other information on HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD and TB for all 50 states and Washington, District of Columbia.
- Chronic Disease Indicators
The CDC Chronic Disease Indicators enables public health professionals and policymakers to retrieve uniformly defined state and selected metropolitan-level data for chronic diseases and risk factors that have a substantial impact on public health.
- Diabetes Data Base
CDC Diabetes Data Base provides data and statistics for US counties.
- Heart Disease Disparities Report
Building on its 2014 Regional Environmental Scan, the Heartland Regional Health Equity Council (Region VII) released an Addendum: Heart Disease Disparities Report, April 2016. The Heartland RHEC established heart disease as a priority area for 2015 because it is one of the leading causes of death for minority populations in the region, which comprises Iowa, Kansas, Missouri and Nebraska. The addendum provides an overview of demographics and heart disease disparities in these four states. It also identifies national and state initiatives promoting heart disease in Region VII, as well as provides readers next steps that can be taken to assist in combating heart disease.
- Is Heart Disease or Cancer the Leading Cause of Death in United States Women?
Pathak, EB. Is Heart Disease or Cancer the Leading Cause of Death in United States Women? Women's Health Issues 2016. Although heart disease remains the leading cause of death among non-Hispanic Whites and Blacks, cancer is the leading cause for all other U.S. women and premature death rates for cancer far exceed the rates for heart disease in all groups. Non-Hispanic Black women continue to suffer the highest rates premature death rates (< age 65) for both cancer and heart disease.
NCI SEER*Stat is statistical software for viewing individual cancer records and for producing statistics to study the impact of cancer on a population.
- Surveillance for cancer incidence and mortality - United States, 2013
by Simple D. Singh, S. Jane Henley, A. Blythe Ryerson MMWR, January 27, 2017 (Surveillance Summaries, vol 66 #4).
- Trends and Patterns of Disparities in Cancer Mortality Among US Counties
1980-2014 by Ali H. Mokdad, Laura Dwyer-Lindgren, Christina Fitzmaurice, Rebecca W. Stubbs, Amelia Bertozzi-Villa, Chloe Morozoff, Raghid Charara, Christine Allen, Mohsen Naghavi, Christopher J. L. Murray, JAMA.2017;317(4):388-406.
- United State Cancer Statistics: Data Visualizations
The Data Visualizations page shows the most recent USCS data in a dynamic format.
- Deaths: Leading Causes for 2014
by Melonie Heron, Ph.D., Division of Vital Statistics, CDC, National Vital Statistics Reports, Volu me 65, Number 5, June 30, 2016.
- The global burden of disease
The welcome decline in mortality from communicable and maternal causes has corresponded with a rise in deaths from non-communicable diseases associated with lifestyle and old age and this website shows that information.
- Global Burden of Disease (GBD)
First-ever global study finds massive health care inequity.
- Measures of burden of disease
Measures of disease burden commonly used in epidemiological research are considered elsewhere in these notes, along with population attributable risks and the challenge of choosing suitable comparison groups in public health.
- Mortality in the United States, 2017
presents final 2017 US age-specific rates by demographic and medical characteristics, and life expectancy estimates, age-specific death rates, and age-adjusted death rates by race, ethnicity and sex. The report also presents the 10 leading causes of death for the total population and for infants
- OECD Better Life Index
This Index allows you to compare well-being across countries, based on 11 topics the OECD has identified as essential, in the areas of material living conditions and quality of life.
- State Cancer Profiles
State Cancer Profiles (co-sponsored by NCI and CDC) characterizes the cancer burden in a standardized manner to motivate action, integrate surveillance into cancer control planning, characterize areas and demographic groups, and expose health disparities.
- Trends in premature mortality in the USA by sex, race, and ethnicity from 1999 to 2014
Trends in premature mortality in the USA by sex, race, and ethnicity from 1999 to 2014: an analysis of death certificate data by Shiels MS, Chernyavskiy P, Anderson WF, et al., The Lancet. Online January 25, 2017. Study finds death rates among 25-49 year olds in the US increased among whites and American Indian/Alaska Natives and declined among Hispanics, Blacks, and Asian/Pacific Islanders.
- US and Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment
of 84 behavioral, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. The Lancet. 2017 September 16; 390:1345-1422.
- Annual report on the US
This report is intended to provide the American people with a comprehensive view of the combined US federal, state, and local governments' (our Government) revenues, expenditures, and key metrics and the factors that may affect future operations.
- The Big Picture
The Big Picture provides calculations using data drawn from government surveys and publicly available aggregate tax returns.
- CMS Medicare Disparities
CMS Medicare Disparities is a disparities mapping tool showing prevalence, costs, morbidity and mortality from 20 medical conditions.
- Financial Toxicity and Cancer Treatment (PDQ)-Health Professional Version
A number of studies demonstrate that individuals with cancer are at higher risk of experiencing financial difficulty than are individuals without cancer. This website reviews the extant literature on financial toxicity among American cancer patients and survivors.
- Financial toxicity (article)
Financial toxicity: 1 in 3 cancer patients have to turn to friends or family to pay for care.
- The Gap
The Gap: A Shortage of Affordable Homes, March 2017 (National Low Income Housing Coalition)
- Housing and Transportation Affordability
Housing and Transportation Affordability indicator used in the CDC-DOT Transporation and Health Tool.
- The Housing and Transportation Affordability Index
The Housing and Transportation Affordability Index, hosted by the Center for Neighborhood Technology, provides a comprehensive view of the cost of housing the cost of transportation at the neighborhood level.
- Housing Markets & Conditions
The Joint Center for Housing Studies of Harvard University, Annual The State of the Nation's Housing, 2019
- HUD Location Affordability Index
The Location Affordability Index (LAI) works to close this gap by providing estimates of household housing and transportation costs at the neighborhood level along with constituent data on the built environment and demographics.
- The Institute on Assets and Social Policy
The Institute on Assets and Social Policy at Brandeis University has created an empirical tool for conducting a racial wealth audit
- Market Watch: Personal Finance
Maps showing How much families must earn in each state to afford housing, child care and food.
- Oxfam America
Oxfam America has a new index that ranks states based on their labor policies. The Best States to Work Index looks at 11 policy areas in three dimensions: wage policies to ensure workers earn as close to a living wage as possible; worker protections so workers can take time off for sickness or pregnancy and have legal protections against sexual harassment; and right to organize policies. They also created an interactive map with state-specific scorecards. Included in the analysis are correlations with health outcomes, including infant mortality and life expectancy.
- CDC Wonder
CDC Wonder is a menu-driven system that provide access to the wide array of public health information available from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
- Census Bureau Statistical Testing Tool
Census Bureau Statistical Testing Tool helps researchers accurately compute confidence intervals for Census data.
- Community Engagement in Public Health
presents a conceptual framework, the Ladder of Community Participation, to illustrate ways to engage communities around public health issues. Based on examples from Contra Costa Health Services' community engagement practices.
- Department of Housing and Urban Development
This Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) website provides information about the HUD-sponsored initiatives and resources focused on the link between health equity and housing.
- DHL Global Connectedness Index
The DHL Global Connectedness Index measures flows of trade, capital, information and people across national borders.
- Does where you live affect how long you live?
Explore how life expectancy in the US compares with life expectancy in your area right down to the census tract level.
EJSCREEN is an environmental justice mapping and screening tool that provides a nationally consistent dataset and approach for combining environmental and demographic indicators. EJSCREEN users choose a geographic area; the tool then provides demographic and environmental information for that area. EJSCREEN displays this information and includes a method for combining environmental and demographic indicators into EJ indexes.
- Global Nonviolent Action Database
Global Nonviolent Action Database is available to provide free access to information about hundreds of cases of nonviolent action for learning and for citizen action that have reached a point of completion.
- Health Disparities Calculator (HD*Calc)
NCI Health Disparities Calculator (HD*Calc) is an online tool that calculates and graphs eleven summary disparity measures previously published in peer-reviewed journals.
- Missing Voters Project: United States 2016
Missing voters were last seen in all 50 states and the District of Columbia on the morning of November 8, 2016. These civilian, non-military, non-institutionalized adults were aged 18 years or older at the time of the election. (Women's Institute for Independent Social Enquiry [WiiSE])
- National Equality Atlas
National Equity Atlas provides data on demographic change, racial inclusion, and the economic benefits of equity for the 100 largest cities, 150 largest regions, all 50 states, and the United States.
The PhenX (consensus measures for Phenotypes and eXposures) Toolkit is a catalog of recommended, standard measures of phenotypes and environmental exposures for use in biomedical research.
REFLEX-ISS is a discussion tool to incorporate social inequalities in health interventions.
- SHPDR (State Health Practice Database for Research)
The State Health Practice Database for Research (SHPDR) captures cross-sectional and longitudinal variation in states' statutes and laws to enable researchers to more effectively perform clinically oriented health economics research, and investigate the diffusion of medical technology and other health services research outcomes of interest.